Development and evolution of Indian economy through LPG model
The objective of India’s development strategy has been to establish a socialistic pattern of society through economic growth with self-reliance, social justice and alleviation of poverty. These objectives were to be achieved within a democratic political framework using the mechanism of a mixed economy where both public and private sectors co-exist. India initiated planning for national economic development with the establishment of the Planning Commission.
During the 60’s, 70’s and 80’s, most of the focus was on accelerating economic growth, savings and investments. The inadequacy of tackling poverty through this strategy was recognized by the Government of India: “The equity objective was sought to be pursued through redistribution of assets. But, land reforms could not be implemented effectively. The problem of poverty could not be tackled through growth, which itself was slow over a long period of time. During the 1990s, India introduced economic reforms under LPG Policy, aiming at liberalizing the economy through various initiatives. , it was at the same time recognized that these liberalization efforts should be combined with a more direct focus on human development.
There were total 12 five year plan has been implemented. Three models Harrod-Domar model, Feldman-Mahalanobis model, Rao-Manmohan model of economics has been used in 1st five year plan (1951-1956), 2nd five year plan (1956-1961), and 8th five year plan (1992-1997) respectively.Each had their own pros and cons. In today’s situation, when the rate of urban development has reached its zenith, it has turned out to be the paramount necessity of giving due attention to public health and environmental protection in urban areas. Public health and environmental protection in urban areas have both-pros and cons.
Considering some of the example public health and environmental protection in urban areas provides for improving living conditions, empowering over the negative consequences during the course of implementation. Public health protection aims to provide and manage for better infrastructure – water supply, drainage, waste disposal etc., whereas, environmental protection involves proper land use distribution, reducing pollution generation, promoting biodiversity etc. Various organizations and departments are coming together for provision of better infrastructure facilities and having a high degree of coordination problems. The current situation, being poor in respect of public health, is promised to be improved by the Government. Various public health works are being carried out currently in a haphazard way causing poor health conditions for the public. This is one of the reason where environmental education is considered necessary. It reduces the negative impact on environment. Upgrading the road conditions with the drainage system leave people with various problems, health being one of the aspects.
There are endless examples of careless implementation effecting public health conditions. Though the end is promising, the present is what matters. If implementation work is done in an assuring way, then public health and environmental protection promises for the betterment of all aspects of life.There are times when the growth in aforesaid services and the total housing stock is much less than the development in previous decade. This could be due to limited withdrawal of public agencies like Housing Boards, and Development Authorities from house construction activities. The fiscal benefits provided in these sector during the last 5 to 10 years do not seem to have led to a boost such activities.